Understanding The Changes In Cash
We often enhance our comprehension of a topic when we have to think through solutions to problems, so to help you understand the cash flow statement, we've put together some questions for you to answer. As you formulate your response you will be learning to think about cash flows the way an accountant does.
When Mary Smith invests her personal money into her new company, what will happen to her company's Cash account?
When a company purchases inventory (merchandise purchased in order to be resold) what will happen to its Cash account?
What happens to the company's Cash account if it borrows money from the bank by signing a note payable?
What happens to a company's Cash account if it declares and pays a dividend on its shares of stock?
What is the effect on its Cash account when a company pays some of its Accounts Payable?
What is the effect on its Cash account when a company prepays a 6-month insurance premium?
What is the effect on its Cash account when a company sells merchandise, but allows the customer to pay in 30 days?AnswerThere is no effect on the Cash account. The transaction does, however, result in a debit to the asset account Accounts Receivable and a credit to the income statement account Sales, which has the effect of increasing sales and net income on the income statement. The transaction changes nothing on the statement of cash flows since there is no cash involved at this time (the cash will be received in 30 days).
What is the effect on its Cash account when a company receives payment from one of its customers 30 days after the sale was recorded?
If a company's Accounts Payable account decreased, what is the likely effect this will have on Cash?
If the asset account Prepaid Insurance increased, what is the likely effect on Cash?
If the asset account Land increased, what's the likely effect on Cash?
If the asset account Land decreased, what's the likely effect on Cash?
If the liability account Bonds Payable increases, what is the likely effect on Cash?
If the liability account Bonds Payable decreases, what is the likely effect on Cash?
Much of what you learned in the practice questions above is common sense. For example, when you use cash to buy a book, you now own the book (you've increased your "assets") but you also have less money (you've decreased your cash). Based on what you learned, you can make the following general assumptions:
- When an asset (other than cash) increases, the Cash account decreases.
- When an asset (other than cash) decreases, the Cash account increases.
- When a liability increases, the Cash account increases.
- When a liability decreases, the Cash account decreases.
- When owner's equity increases, the Cash account increases.
- When owner's equity decreases, the Cash account decreases.
Here's a Tip
For a change in assets (other than cash), the change in the Cash account is in the opposite direction.
For a change in liabilities and owner's equity, the change in the Cash account is in the same direction.
Format of the Statement of Cash Flows
The statement of cash flows has four distinct sections:
- Cash involving operating activities
- Cash involving investing activities
- Cash involving financing activities
- Supplemental information/disclosures
Assuming that the cash flow statement is prepared using the indirect method (the method used by most companies) the differences in a company's balance sheet accounts will provide much of the needed information. For example, if the statement of cash flows is for the year 2018, the balance sheet accounts at December 31, 2018 will be compared to the balance sheet accounts at December 31, 2017. The changes or differences in these account balances will likely be entered in one of the sections of the statement of cash flows.
Shown below is each of the four sections of the statement of cash flows, followed by a list of those balance sheet accounts which affect it.
1. Cash Provided From or Used By Operating Activities
This section of the cash flow statement reports the company's net income and then converts it from the accrual basis to the cash basis by using the changes in the balances of the current asset and current liability accounts, such as:
Other Current Assets
Payroll Taxes Payable
Income Taxes Payable
Other Current Liabilities
In addition to using the changes in current assets and current liabilities, the operating activities section of the SCF also includes adjustments for depreciation and amortization expense, gains and losses on the sale of long-term assets, stock-based compensation, deferred income taxes, and others.
Note that the changes in the current liability accounts for short-term loans will be part of a company's financing activities.
2. Cash Provided From or Used By Investing Activities
This section of the cash flow statement reports the cash flows causing the balances of long-term asset accounts to change. Examples of long-term (or noncurrent) assets include:
In short, investing activities involve the purchase and/or sale of long-term investments and property, plant, and equipment.
3. Cash Provided From or Used By Financing Activities
This section of the cash flow statement reports the cash flows causing the balances of the long-term liability accounts, the stockholders' equity accounts, and the short-term loans payable accounts to change. Examples of these accounts include:
Short-term Notes or Loans Payable
Long-term Notes or Loans Payable
Deferred Income Taxes
Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par-Preferred Stock
Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par-Common Stock
Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock
In short, financing activities involve the issuance and/or the repurchase of a company's own bonds or stock as well as short-term and long-term borrowings and repayments. Cash dividends paid to stockholders are also reported in this section.
4. Supplemental Information
This section of the cash flow statement discloses the amount that a company actually paid in interest and income taxes. The amounts appearing on the income statement are usually not the amounts paid.
Also reported in this section are the significant exchanges not involving cash. For example, the exchange of company stock for company bonds will be reported in this section.
Where To Enter The Balance Sheet Changes
Take a look at the summary below to see where the changes in the balance sheet accounts should be entered on the statement of cash flows:
Adjustments Within The Operating Activities Section
When the indirect method is used to prepare the statement of cash flows it begins with the amount of net income from the company's income statement. Next, adjustments are listed to convert the net income amount to the cash amount.
If all of a company's revenues were cash sales (no credit sales), and if the company paid out cash for all of its expenses, then it's possible that the company's net income would equal its net cash from operating activities. Since some of the revenues and expenses on the income statement were not cash transactions, we must list adjustments for depreciation, gain or losses on sales of assets, and the changes in current assets and current liabilities (except for short-term loans payable). These adjustments will be illustrated in the hypothetical story presented in Part 3.