A contingent asset is a potential asset associated with a contingent gain. Unlike contingent liabilities and contingent losses, contingent assets and contingent gains are not recorded in accounts, even when they are probable and the amount can be estimated.
An example of a contingent gain and contingent asset might be a lawsuit filed by Company A against Company B for infringement of Company A's patent. If it is probable that Company A will win the lawsuit and receive an estimated amount of money, it has a contingent asset and a contingent gain.
However, it will not report the asset and gain until the lawsuit is settled. (At most Company A will prepare a very carefully worded disclosure stating that it possibly could win the case.) On the other hand, Company B will need to make an entry in its accounts if the loss contingency is probable and the amount can be estimated. If one of those are missing, Company B will have to disclose the loss contingency in the notes to its financial statements.
You can learn more about contingencies in the FASB's Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 5, Accounting for Contingencies, at www.FASB.com.